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How to determine the route for cnc machining

 In controlled machining, the path of the tool position relative to the workpiece is called the machining route.

When programming, the main principles for determining the machining route are as follows:

  • 1) The machining route should ensure the accuracy and surface roughness of the processed parts, and the efficiency is high.
  • 2) Make numerical calculation simple to reduce programming workload.
  • 3) The machining route should be the shortest, which can reduce the program segment and the time of empty tool. To determine whether it is a single pass or multiple passes to complete the machining, and whether to use down milling or up-cut milling in the milling process. 

For point-controlled CNC machine tools, only high positioning accuracy is required, and the positioning process is as fast as possible, and the movement path of the tool relative to the workpiece is irrelevant. Therefore, this type of machine tool should arrange the tool path according to the shortest idle distance. In addition, the axial movement size of the tool must be determined. The size is mainly determined by the hole depth of the machined part, but some auxiliary dimensions should also be considered, such as the introduction distance and overrun of the tool.

When threading on a CNC machine tool, the z-direction feed along the pitch direction should maintain a strict speed ratio relationship with the rotation of the machine tool spindle, so it is necessary to avoid cutting during the acceleration or deceleration of the feed mechanism. To this end, it is necessary to introduce a distance δ1 beyond the distance δ2. The value of and is related to the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool drag system, and is related to the thread pitch and thread accuracy. It is generally 2-5mm, and the larger value is used for the large pitch and high-precision thread; generally it is about 1/4. If there is no undercut at the end of the thread, the shape of the end is related to the CNC system, and the end is generally 45o. String 8

When milling flat parts, the side edge of an end mill is generally used for cutting. In order to reduce the traces of the knife and ensure the surface quality of the parts, the cutting-in and cutting-out procedures of the tool need to be carefully designed. When milling the outer surface contour, the cutting-in and cutting-out points of the milling cutter should cut into and out of the part surface tangentially along the extension line of the part contour curve, instead of directly cutting into the part along the normal direction to avoid scratches on the machined surface. Ensure that the contour of the part is smooth.

When milling the inner contour surface, the cut-in and cut-out cannot be extended. At this time, the milling cutter can cut in and cut out along the normal direction of the part contour, and select the cut-in and cut-out points at the intersection of the two geometric elements of the part contour. In the state of balanced elastic deformation of the workpiece, tool, fixture, and machine tool system, when the feed is stopped, the cutting force will decrease, which will change the balance of the system. The tool will leave scratches on the surface of the part where the feed is stopped. Avoid feed stalls during contour machining.

When it comes to curved surfaces, the ball-end knife is commonly used for machining with the "line cutting method". The so-called line cutting method means that the tangent track of the tool and the part contour is line by line, and the distance between the lines is determined according to the requirements of the machining accuracy of the part.

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